Independence 250~265 Benefit plans 、Insurance 、Loan -AICPA Code of professional conductのPart1

Participation in Employee Benefit Plans

Part1の250。Employee benefit plans(従業員給付制度)、有給、年金、失業手当など。

Covered member が Attest client の Employee benefit plans (EBP)、もしくは Attest client が Sponsor  の EBP に Participate していると、Self interest threat であり、Independence を Impair。

過去に Participate していても 現在は Associate してなければ、Independence を Impair しているとはみなされない。

Covered member が EBP の Sponsor である Government organization の Employee でありながら、Laws and regulations により Plan の Audit を Require されているとき、以下の Safeguards をすべてみたせば、Threats を Acceptable level にまで下げることができる。

  • The covered member is required to participate in the plan as a condition of employment.
  • The plan is offered to all employees in comparable positions.
  • The covered member is not a director, officer, employee, promoter, or the like of the plan.
  • The covered member has no influence or control over the investment strategy, benefits, or other management activities of the plan.

Depository, Brokerage, and Other Accounts


Depository Accounts


Financial difficulties が Remote

Covered member が Firm の場合、Bank がこの先 Financial difficulties に直面する Likelihood が Remote であるならば、Independence を Impair することにならない。

Acceptable level

Covered member は以下の条件を満たすことで、Attest client である Bank の Depository account(預金口座) を保有することができる。

  • The balance in the depository account is fully insured
  • Any uninsured amounts were not material to the covered member’s worth
  • If uninsured accounts are considered material, they are reduced to an immaterial amount within 30 days of becoming material.

Brokerage and Other Accounts


Attest client である Broker の Brokerage accounts をもつときには、以下の Safeguards を満たさないと Independence の Impair となる。

  • The attest client’s services were rendered under the attest client’s normal terms, procedures and requirements
  • Any covered member’s assets subject to the risk of loss are immaterial to the covered member’s net worth.

Insurance Products


Insurance Policies With No Investment Option


Insurance policies に Investment option がなければ、Financial interest とはみなされない。

Insurance policies に Investment option がついていても、Normal term と Condition であり、以下のどちらかを満たしていなければ、Independence は Impair されない。

  • The ability to select the policy’s underlying investments
  • The authority to supervise or participate in the investment decision and the covered member invested in an attest client.

Loans, Leases, and Guarantees




Covered member が Attest client に Loan によるお金の貸し借りを行ったら、Independence を Impair。

Attest client に関連する以下の人たちとの Loan もアウト

  • Officers
  • Directors
  • 10% shareholders

Covered member やその Immediate family member が、Lending institution である Attest client からLoan を行った時、以下の Loan ならば Independent を Impair しない。

  • Immaterial unsecured loan
  • Home mortgage
  • Secured loan

ただし、以下の Safeguards を満たす必要がある。

  • Normal lending procedures, terms, and requirements were applied.
  • The loan occurred before the lending institution become an attest client, or came from a lending institution for which independence was not required and later sold to an attest client.
  • Loans are kept current, and terms are not altered by extending maturity date, lowering interest rate, and so on.
  • The estimated fair value of the collateral equals or exceeds the outstanding balance; any deficit is not material to the covered member’s net worth.



Capital lease は Independence を Impair。

Operating lease は、以下の Safeguards をすべて満たせば、Independence を Impair しない。

  • The lease meets the generally accepted accounting principles criteria for an operating lease
  • The terms and conditions are comparable with similar leases
  • All amounts are paid in accordance with the terms of the lease

Business Relationships


Cooperative Arrangements With Attest Clients


Joint Closely Held Investments


The firm と Attest client で Small company の Material な Stakes をもつことは Independence の Impair となる。Covered member と Client の Officer でもダメ。

Google や Microsoft のような上場している大企業の Stakes なら Independence の Impair とならない。